Moreover, my ancestors' souls are sustained by the atmosphere of the house, since I answer for them the questions that their lives once left behind. I carve out rough answers as best I can. I have even drawn them on the walls. It is as if a silent, greater family, stretching down the centuries, were peopling the house.

Carl Jung (1875 - 1961)

Friday, 4 July 2014

That Jarvis family - whatever happened to Ruth Elizabeth Jarvis' children?

Just this last week I was surprised by new information on my Jarvis family. Once Mark Jarvis (I wrote about his marriages in a previous blog post) arrived in New Zealand, his life appears to be more straightforward. But his children left behind continued to lead complex, restless lives. I haven't yet posted on Eugenie Jarvis (1845 -1902) who had a series of relationships with husbands, and de facto partners to rival her fathers' but I was unaware that her elder sister Ruth Elizabeth Jarvis had three children by James Holliday, a hawker in cutlery. 
For some time what Ruth was doing when the 1861 census came around was a mystery to me. I knew she had married James Burtinshaw when she was about 30. James was a fisherman from Sussex, who worked out of Cornwall and Devon and they married on the 24th August 1868 at St Andrew's church Plymouth. She stated that she was a spinster and lists her address as the Devon & Cornwall Hospital, Princess Place.

I have made some attempts to find out more from the British Archives on this Hospital, but little exists on the nursing staff from that time. It appears, in the light of her claims on the 1901 census (where she is a 'night nurse' at the 'lunatic asylum') and in 1911 as a 'District Nurse - not working' - that she had begun her training as a nurse or a nursing assistant  there. I'll write more on what happened to Ruth after her marriage to James Burtenshaw broke down, and she moved on yet again, this time to Wales.

In an effort to fill in that missing 1861 census year I searched under her first name only, and found a Ruth, born 1836 (2 years out) in Harlow, and apparently the wife of a James Holliday and the mother of 2 children, Ellen Holliday (4) and Alice Holliday (1). Because Ruth listed no children born to her on the 1911 census, and had no children with her in any other census, I gained the impression that she was living with James and his own birth children - probably temporarily as a 'de facto' partner. James is listed as married to a 'Mary' in the 1851 census. 

But when I sent for Alice's birth certificate last week I found that Alice was indeed Ruth's biological child, and that Ruth had at least 3 children by James Holiday beginning her relationship with him when she was only about 16 years old: Caroline Elizabeth Holliday (1855- 1857); Ellen Caroline Holliday (1857 - 1897) and Alice Holliday (1859 - ?). James was about 22 years older than Ruth......

There are a number of trees on Ancestry of the Holliday family which include Ruth, but no-one else has made a connection with the Jarvis family so far although I have been in touch with one tree owner connected with Ruth's daughter, Ellen who went on to marry and have children of her own. 

Life with James, a street Hawker, sounds as if it was hard. Hawkers, Peddlers, Costermongers - sometimes these terms were interchangeable but a Hawker seems to have been a street seller with a barrow or dray; at least some type of means to wheel or transport his (or her) wares. They typically called out what they had to sell and there is a lot of comment in newspapers of the time about noise and unruly behaviour by Hawkers.

Henry Mayhew, writing his exhaustive (and exhausting) volume on London Labour and the London Poor in  1861 calculated that a cutlery hawker would earn about 15/- weekly. Cutlery Hawker statistics.
Henry used few resources for his statistics and was apt to make some wild assumptions (not unknown even today in the field) so these weekly earnings could be a bit unreliable. In the Morning Post of Thursday, 2nd April 1857 we can find this report stating their living was precarious, but 'if they were prudent' it could be managed. Accounts vary from versions of  cheerful, devil-may-care descriptions of street life to appalling descriptions of the Whitechapel area where Ruth and her family lived.  
 "The best paid occupation appears to be prostitution, and it is a melancholy fact that a nest of bad houses in Angel Alley, supported chiefly by the farmers' men who bring the hay and straw to Whitechapel market twice a week, are the cleanest-looking dwellings in the district. The windows have tolerably neat green blinds, the doors have brass plates, and inside the houses there is comparative comfort, if not plenty. While the wretched virtuous population are starving in black holes, or creeping out in the hour of their wildest prosperity to purchase sixpennyworth of refuse meat from the stall opposite the greasy, sawdusty shambles, the inhabitants of this court of vice know little, at least for a few years, of want and suffering. If their ranks are thinned by death or disease, there are always fresh recruits coming forward; and must be while there are as many houseless women as men, and nothing but low threepenny lodging-houses, where little or no distinction is made between the sexes. I heard a child in the street - a boy about eight years of age - telling another boy what a man had given his mother as the price of her shame. The boys and girls here are men and women at ten or twelve years of age." Ragged London

The Welcome Library gives a pretty harrowing account of Thomas Street conditions, where Ruth, James and their little daughters were living in 1861, probably in rented rooms: Thomas St conditions.  Relief from the Poor Law Unions may have been hard to access, as James moved from place to place and the Unions sought out, and billed, the home parish of those in need. Local councils, small shop-owners and the general public seem to have found Hawkers a nuisance, but their wares were not only goods in demand but also the only means of earning a few pennies for many, including women and children.

Ruth Elizabeth Jarvis - like her father Mark - seems to be good at 'reinventing' herself. From her life as the eldest of four children and an ailing mother in 1851, she went on as the wife of a man 22 years older and the mother of three children in 1861, then the wife of a sailor in 1871, and onwards as a nurse, and the wife of a customers officer in 1881. 

But what happened to her relationship with James after 1861? Why did she leave  Ellen, possibly her only surviving child, in the care of others?To find out more, I need to first research Ellen Caroline Holliday: get her marriage certificate to Jacob Rodrigues, and try.... if at all possible, to find out what Ellen was doing in 1871 when she was 14. 

And where is lost Alice, the baby of the family in 1861?

Sunday, 8 June 2014

Don't be daunted by Irish Family History research! How I found my Joyce family in Armagh

Thomas Joyce 1925

NOTE: For convenience, I have placed the resources I mention on a separate page. 'Blogger' tends to not save my links, forcing me to re-do the whole thing....on this, my third attempt I decided to try another way!

Embarking on research into one of my Irish families for the first time, I felt a bit stumped. I had read so much on the internet about ‘all records destroyed’ and ‘we’ll trace your Irish roots but don’t even think of asking us until you have the Townland’ stuff. I had no family information about my great grandfather, Thomas Joyce except he was a very fierce Protestant, and that my grandmother, Mabel Joyce, did not get along with him. The inference was that they argued, and certainly my grandmother was known to have a temper. You can see them here in the photo on the occasion of Mabel's wedding to my grandfather, Gordon Huia Samuel Clarkson.  As I researched Thomas Joyce’s marriage, and wife, Elizabeth Charlotte Scott, I realised that my grandmother may well have had good reason to distance herself from her father – all of this will make for an interesting Blog feature another time! The Joyce side in Ireland was essentially unknown.
However I did have Thomas Joyce’s death certificate giving his father’s name, Andrew Joyce, mother’s maiden name Rachel Black and the county as Armagh. The first thing I did was a Google search, and found nothing. There were no other families on ancestry or any other website searching for my family. At that stage, I was not in touch with the children of my great uncle and I did not know if they had any other information. Message boards yielded some help, but no real contacts.
So I started by searching for surname clusters in Northern Ireland for the Joyce family. These come up as mostly in county Galway, but there were some in Armagh.
I looked up FamilySearch, the New Zealand passenger lists, and found a number of men with the same name – Thomas Joyce. However, since I knew the date of my great grandparent’s marriage, and Thomas’ approximate birth year, I could eliminate a few of these. Only one stated that Thomas Joyce was from Armagh, and it was 5 years prior to their marriage. It seemed possible, and what was interesting was that on the original document (so much more useful to view this than an index) was another young man, also from Armagh called Joseph Thompson. Perhaps they were travelling together? No other immigrants from Armagh on that ship.
To get more information, I ordered the ‘Intention To Marry’ from the New Zealand archives. There is a column on the page for the time which the person has been in the area. This can be a trap – clerks interpreted this differently, and some took it to mean ‘in the parish’ and others ‘in the country’. It could give me a guide for further elimination purposes though. He was apparently in the area 6 months before he and Elizabeth Charlotte Scott were married in 1879. Enough time for them to have become acquainted! Thomas has his profession listed as a ‘baker’. Maybe they met when he served her in the shop?
I found a number of Irish Thompsons in Auckland – their landing place – but no information as to where they came from, so the Joseph Thompson connection was not all that useful in that context. A search of the Joyces in the area in which my great grandfather lived and died yielded no connections that I could see. A wider search in FamilySearch of all Joyce’s from Ireland and particularly Armagh coming to New Zealand yielded nothing prior to 1900.
So, back to Ireland. His age is fairly consistent on documents. On the passenger list of 1874 he is listed as 20. On his marriage certificate he is listed as 24, about 5 years later, which is reasonable. He seems to have been born about 1855 (that’s what I thought at the time), so his parents could have been born anytime between 1810 and 1837. It was possible that they could have been alive for the 1901 census. These are online, free and very easily searchable at the National Archives site.
Here I found a Rachel Joyce aged 75 with two unmarried sons John (48) and Henary (38) living in Brackagh (Townland), Mullahead (District), Armagh (County). She is not in the 1911 census, but her sons are. FamilySearch again found a possible death in the area for her, so I obtained the certificate, which identified the informant – very usefully not one of her sons, but a married daughter, Rachel Fowler.
This certificate also identified the Rachel Joyce (no maiden name, a pity) as the widow of Andrew Joyce. The slightly uncommon names, the combination of them, and the ages were compelling evidence that these were the parents, a sister and two brothers of my Thomas.  Andrew’s death certificate confirmed him as a farmer in the area, and the informant was also his daughter Rachel.
Griffiths valuation search sees Andrew Joyce along with possible other family, and he was an executor to the will of James Sinton, a prominent family in the area from FamilySearch. A look at the PRONI site (Public Records Office Northern Ireland)  found that John, Thomas’ brother, had made a will and left his money to a nephew, one of Rachel Fowler’s children, firming up the evidence that Rachel was a sibling of my Thomas.
A bit more looking in the British newspaper archive and the Orange Lodge website fleshed out some background. Andrew Joyce apparently had a brother, James, who had some trouble with a debt in 1881. But census searches did not find the name ‘Black’ in the district, but ‘Blacker’. Who Rachel’s own family are not yet certain.
The Irish database site (pay per view) identified the marriages of George, Rachel and Elizabeth with a father Andrew.
It was at this stage that I sought a professional researcher and I chose Ulster Ancestry – I wanted some parish records if possible, and they were able to find baptisms at the Church of Ireland, Mullavilly for George, Elizabeth, Rachael, Thomas, Henary (also spelled Henry) and another Andrew (whom I think died young) plus some speculations that nearby Joyce families were connected.  The professionals also added their opinion that this was most likely the family of Thomas Joyce. It was money well-spent, and netted me maps of the area and good background information.Thomas turned out to have been born on the 6th May, 1853. Although two years out from his own reckoning, I am reasonably certain this is his date.
In this research, I was aided by the fact that the combination of names Andrew and Rachel were uncommon, and Thomas’ death certificate information was fairly accurate. But I did get most of the information from free sources on the internet. My next move will be to join a local family history society, to see if I can find links back, and a bit more about the family and their lives.
One thing I will add about a problem with this research – the ages of the children of Rachel and Andrew can be variable. Rachel’s age shows her 75 in the 1901 census, indicating a birth year of 1826, but her death certificate claims she was born in 1821. Son George’s date seems to be out five years too. This means I will need to buy a few more certificates to really identify these siblings of Thomas.
Don’t be daunted by Irish family history research! I’ve made great gains with my Ross and Cuttle family in Cork too….. same method, and a lot of free sources plus sending for selected certificates. My White and Nellon/Neilan/Nellan   families….. another story!

Sunday, 1 June 2014

A slow resolution - tracing Sarah Edwards nee Pope and her husband William

When you get to the period between 1800 and 1830, finding the 'right' person becomes much harder. I am struggling with finding more detail about Sarah Pope and William Edwards, my 3 x great grandparents. I found Sarah, as Sarah Edwards, in the 1841 census. She was living with her mother and father, Elizabeth Pope and John Pope and her daughter Rosina at 102 Upper East Smithfield, Wapping. Her age was given as 40, but I am aware that some pretty serious 'rounding off' occurred in that first census. I had already found her marriage to William Edwards on the 26th February 1826 at St Botolph without Aldgate, Middlesex. Probably, the youngest they could have been at marriage was 16 years of age. So she and her husband were most likely born between  1800 and 1810, with her age more likely between 1805 and 1810.

The 1841 census is the only one I have found Sarah in. After that, her surviving daughter Rosina (there were two other daughters who died in infancy) appears in the 1851 census with her grandparents, then onwards married to Mark Jarvis. 

So the question is -  what happened to Sarah? Between 1826 and 1833, she is listed at a few addresses in Tower Hamlets and Stepney. These appear to be rented lodgings, which fits with the fact that her husband, William, was a Merchant seaman, mainly working as a steward and probably absent for years. He may not have been present for the actual baptisms of the children and it is quite in order that his name appears as the father in these circumstances. The obvious possibilities are that she married or moved in with another man after 1841, or died - They do not appear as a couple in any census - that is, recognisable as a couple, right ages, no children or very young children, having had more babies after 1850.

No possible re-marriages for a Sarah Edwards between 1841 and 1851. From the 1851 census, it is of course possible that she moved on, giving ambiguous or false information - no way we can prove that. She does not appear as a witness at her daughter Rosina's marriage and she is not listed as the informant on her parent's death certificates in 1851 and 1854. 

Between 1841 and 1851 there are 9 deaths of a Sarah Edwards in the Stepney/Tower Hamlets - Whitechapel area. When I put matched these with the National Burial Index, 3rd Edition and burials from 'The Genealogist', two deaths, Jan-March 1848 appear possible, one with an age of 42 which could be the best match. However there are 3 deaths in Stepney in other years, 1 in St George in the East, 2 in Whitechapel and 1 in East London. Elizabeth Pope and John Pope were listed as dying in the Stepney registration district, sub district of Shadwell and Wapping so if Sarah was still living with her parents, or nearby, this is the district in which to look.

Ancestry has a "London, England Deaths and Burials" database and a real possibility leaps up from here - a burial 24th January 1847 in St John, Wapping at the age of - 49!  and the residence is Upper East Smithfield - it must be her!.  so she is a bit older than I thought.....
I really need to get that death certificate! William, her merchant seaman husband, could be the one I have found in three crew lists as a steward, working on the barque,  'Marion' under Captain William Orr Campbell. But his age is listed as 32 and 33 between 1843 and 1845. Could he be some 12 years younger than his wife? Its possible.... A death certificate may tell me who the informant was, and seeing that she pre-deceased both of her parents and was living with them before she died, it is likely that one of them is the informant, but if I am really lucky, it may list her husband.

Saturday, 24 May 2014

Sentimental Sunday - My grandma's autograph album

I have my grandmother’s autograph book which was given to her on her 20th birthday by a girlfriend, Venus Veronica Von Sierakowski. I don’t know too much about this lady’s life. She lived nearby to my grandmother, and may have gone to school with her although she was a little younger. Her father ran a decorative wire-work business in Columbo St, Christchurch New Zealand for many years. Venus, later calling herself ‘Vena’ appears to have lived at home with her parents, and never married.
My grandmother, Mabel Clarkson nee Joyce (always known as ‘Joy’) was born in 1897 although she fiddled the date a little. Until I sent for her birth certificate, our family always believed she was nearly three years younger. Her autograph album has suffered a bit: some water damage on the front cover and my cheeky father (I think he must have been about 4 or 5 years old at the time) practiced writing in it himself and cut out some of the pages towards the back for some project or other. I notice that there was a preference for the pink pages for those who wrote verses…

‘L.  Reed’ wrote a verse or quote I can’t place as yet:

Keep sweet, dear girl, the world’s great need

Are those who will this maxim heed;

Sweetness is more than greatness far,

Can’t be a sun? Then be a star

Someone Bradshaw wrote ‘Live like the rose’ which I can’t find anywhere either
A quite indecipherable friend wrote a quote from James Witcomb Riley with some underlining on the ‘rejoice’ which is an illusion to my grandmothers surname and Evaleen Munro misquotes Ralph Waldo Emerson with “What I must do, in all that concerns me..”
A careful draughtsman “Jas. C. Young’ quotes Stephen Grellet (although the authorship of this seems much disputed). This man could be a number of ‘James C. Youngs’ – he remains a mystery.

I didn’t have much luck finding out about her other friends either: Trixie Gidley and Annie Bradshaw both wrote in it. Grandma was a great one for socialising with her friends – always going to picnics and teas. Her recipe books are full of hand-written notes, cuttings from newspapers and torn pieces from shopping lists with instructions for dainty sandwiches, hors d’oeuvres and little cakes for entertaining. She liked everything ‘just so’. I’ll be writing more about her and her parents in time on this Blog. Her background was not as genteel as she would have liked to portray…. There is no doubt that her childhood was disrupted and painful, and that the family hushed up a big scandal relating to her own mother, Elizabeth Charlotte Scott, although it leaked out in the papers - into the Truth, no less (not a respectable paper!). 
Gordon H S Clarkson wrote on the 11.7.20 “smile, and when you smile…” I think at this time he was my grandmother’s fiancé, or soon to be. Mabel Joyce and Gordon Hua Samuel Clarkson apparently had a long engagement and did not marry until 1925. There is family information that they quarreled frequently and although they were together for the rest of their lives, my grandmother had a quick temper – possibly a family trait of the Joyce’s:  when she was riled, dishes would fly in the kitchen, according to my late father. Maybe this verse in her autograph album was a hint?

At Christmas 1920 Gordon gave her a custom-bound book of soprano songs composed by Amy Woodforde-Finden, Herbert Oliver and Daisy McGeogh. They could have been her favourites – my grandmother sang at amateur concerts (it was a popular social pastime of the day) and even when she was about 80 years old I remember her whistling and trilling like a bird when she was in the  bath, in perfect tune. This leather-bound volume falls open to a song called ‘Till I wake’ one of the ‘Four Indian Love Lyrics’ by Amy Woodforde-Finden . The musical pieces of this composer are described as:
“… noted for their sentimentality, their romantic fluidity and how they blend a particularly British, middle class sensibility with an Asian pastiche” Woodforde Family

I was delighted to find this website which offers lovely versions of the songs here:Indian Love Lyrics

The words were by Adela Florence Nicolson née Cory aka Laurence Hope and Violet Nicolson who appears to have been an equally romantic, passionate and possibly eccentric poet who wrote her formal verse “steeped in the Indian landscape and Sufi symbolism, [and] often assumes the voices of Indian dancers and slaves to engage themes of passionate love and loss.” 
In Christchurch 1917 Mary Pickford was playing in ‘Less than the Dust’ featuring the song of that name, also by the same composer and lyricist. From the advertisements, it appears to have been hugely popular and its odds on that Mabel went to see it at the Empire Theatre – with a box of chocolates, of course!